Jumano Facts

Jumano Facts
The Jumano were an indigenous group of tribes located in western Texas, in the southern plains, and one between these two regions, first encountered by Europeans in 1581. These three groups of Jumano were the Pueblo Indians in Salinas, nomads along the Rio Grande and Rio Conchos, and the Wichitas along the Red River and Arkansas River. Jumano were traders and hunters and were known to take on the role as middlemen between the Indian tribes and Spanish settlers. The term Jumano came about when Antonio de Espejo used the term to describe those living at La Junta in 1581.
Interesting Jumano Facts:
Jumano was spelled many different ways by the Spanish including Xumana, Jumana, Humano, Jumanes, Xomanm and Xumano.
The French referred to the Jumano as Chumano and Chomano.
Frances V. Scholes (a historian), and H.P Mera (an archeologist) clarified the meaning of the name Jumano in 1940. They determined it had two meanings. The first was referring to people living along the Pecos River in Texas, and the second referred to people who tattoed or painted their bodies.
There is a tremendous amount of debate about the Jumano people. Their location and culture and society is a hot topic among scholars who cannot seem to agree on what is true and what is not.
The name Jumano is used to describe the native tribes in Texas and nearby regions between 1500 and 1700.
The Jumano may have disappeared by 1750 as a result of warfare, slavery, and infectious diseases brought over by Spanish explorers.
Today there is a group of Apache-Jumano living in Texas that is trying to gain recognition as an official tribe.
Jumano are believed to have been farmers, and buffalo hunters, known for their pottery use as well.
In 1580 the population of the Jumano located along the Pecos River and Rio Grande is estimated to have been as high as 30,000.
The Jumano had close friendships with other tribes and worked to cultivate friendships and alliances with other tribes.
Jumano did not wear a lot of clothing and were often referred to as 'naked' Indians.
When the Jumano did make clothing they made very high quality clothing from the hides they harvested.
The Jumano began to build alliances with the Spanish in the 17th century to help defend against various Apache tribes advancing in their direction.
In 1654 the Spanish fought with the Jumano against an advancing tribe and were rewarded with many bison skins.
As the 17th century came to an end the Spanish were no longer interested in their alliance with the Jumano and moved toward building an alliance with the Caddo in east Texas.
The Concho Indians were friends of the Jumano and it is believed the Conchos had merged with the Jumano in about 1700.
The Jumano merged with the Apache in the early 1700s and appeared to have disappeared.
Some scholars and historians believe that the Jumano migrated to the Black Hills region in the north and became known as the Kiowa around 1800.

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