Newton is perhaps one of the most wellknown names in all of science for his theories on gravity.

However, his contributions to mathematics may have been more important to his career.

His book, PhilosophiĆ¦ Naturalis Principia Mathematica ("Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy"), was published in 1687, laying the groundwork for classical mechanics.

Newton also made important contributions to optics, and he is credited alongside Gottfried Leibniz for the development of calculus.

Principia established the laws of motion and universal gravitation, therefore dominating scientists' understanding of the universe for the next three hundred years.

He is responsible for removing all remaining doubt in his age about the heliocentric model, which he did by combining Kepler's laws of planetary motion with his own mathematical description of gravity.

He then used those principles to outline the trajectories of comets, the tides and equinoxes, and other astronomical phenomena.

Newton correlated that the motion of objects on Earth could be described by the same principles.

Newton predicted that the Earth was shaped like an oblate spheroid, which was later confirmed by the work of Maupertuis, La Condamine, and more.

This helped convince most European researchers that Newtonian mechanics was a more indepth system than that of Descartes.

While even school children associate Newton with theories on gravity involving a childish story about an apple falling on his head, Newton was actually responsible for a number of elementary discoveries.

Chief among these are the principle of white light being made up of a spectrum of color, and his work on the first usable reflecting telescope.

Newton also contributed greatly to the understanding of the speed of sound and empirical laws of cooling.

In mathematics, Newton is still best known for his work in calculus, and for the binomial theories on exponents, as well as for establishing his method for estimating roots of a function.
