Battle of Vicksburg Facts

Battle of Vicksburg Facts
The Battle of Vicksburg, or Siege of Vicksburg, took place from May 18, 1863 until July 4, 1863. The result was a resounding Union victory, but the long-term effects were that the Confederate forces lost all control of the Mississippi River and it was also a turning point in the western theater of operations - the Confederate forces would not launch another major offensive in the west. The Battle of Vicksburg was part of the larger "Anaconda Plan," which was a long-term and wide-ranging strategy whereby the Union forces would control the Atlantic and Gulf coastlines, as well as the Mississippi River, prohibiting the Confederate forces form resupplying. The battle was also part of the larger "Vicksburg Campaign" by the Union army, which began in late 1862 in Memphis, Tennessee.
Interesting Battle of Vicksburg Facts:
The Union army was led by Major General Ulysses S. Grant, who commanded the Army of the Tennessee.
The Confederate forces were led by Lieutenant General John C. Pemberton.
Since Vicksburg, Mississippi is located on a bluff, it was a perfect defensive location for the Confederate forces.
To begin with, Pemberton had about 18,500 men to defend the city against Grant's 35,000 men.
Besides being located on a bluff, the Confederate forces had the advantage of fortifying Vicksburg with trenches, forts, and gun pits.
The Union sources took advantage of the Yazoo River, bayous, and quickly made canals to encircle Vicksburg.
Major General William T. Sherman, who led the XV Corps, was one of five generals under Grant's command.
Pemberton commanded four other generals
The siege began with a series of failed Union frontal assaults.
After a few days, the battle became a siege where both sides waited for reinforcements.
Union forces began to be reinforced in June, boosting their numbers to 77,000 by the end of the month.
The Confederates were able to get some, but far fewer reinforcements into the city
Confederate forces led by Brigadier General Henry E. McCulloch attempted to disrupt the Union supply lines about fifteen miles north of Vicksburg, resulting in the Battle of Milliken's Bend on June 7, 1863. The Confederates were repulsed by two Union gunboats, The 23rd Iowa, two companies of the 10th Illinois Cavalry, and the newly formed colored African Brigade.
Disease claimed the lives of many civilians and soldiers in Vicksburg.
Union gunboats fired over 22,000 shells into Vicksburg during the siege.
In late June, Union sappers dug under the line and set off an explosion that blew apart the Confederate line on June 25.
Pemberton attempted a conditional surrender on July 3, but was rebuffed by Grant and officially surrendered the city, unconditionally, on July 4.
The casualty count for the Union forces was 766 killed and 3,793 wounded, while for the Confederates it was 3,202 killed/wounded/or missing and nearly 30,000 surrendered.
Modern Vicksburg grew around the battlefield, but Vicksburg National Military Park was opened in 1899 and added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1966.

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