> Biochemistry : Metabolism Quiz
Biochemistry : Metabolism Quiz
Thousands of chemical reactions take place in the cells of a living organism. The set of reactions carried out by said organism is called its metabolism. Living beings much accomplish two major functions in order to survive. They have to extract energy from nutrients in forms that they can use immediately as well as store for future use. In addition, they have to use nutrients to make building blocks for synthesizing all of the molecules needed to carry out their life functions.
Catabolism refers to the metabolic reactions that break down complex biological molecules such as proteins, polysaccharides, triglycerides and nucleic acids for the purposes of forming smaller building blocks and extracting energy. After a person eats, their body immediately starts breaking down the food. Starches are broken down into glucose, which is then broken down into smaller molecules. Proteins are broken down into amino acids. Key word for catabolic processes is “break down.”
Anabolism refers to the metabolic reactions that use energy and small building blocks to synthesize the complex molecules needed by an organism. After a person’s body has extracted the energy from the starches, it uses that energy and the amino acids produced from proteins to synthesize the specific proteins that allow muscles to contract, catalyze metabolic reactions and carry out many other functions. Key words for anabolic processes are “synthesize” or “form.”
ATP, which is adenosine triphosphate, is a chemical energy nucleotide that links catabolism and anabolism. The energy source that fuels metabolism is a process called photosynthesis. Carbon dioxide and water plus energy from sunlight yields glucose and oxygen gas. Most organisms need the oxygen produced from photosynthesis to survive. The oxygen is used in cellular respiration, which is the complementary chemical reaction to photosynthesis. In respiration, glucose and oxygen are broken down to form carbon dioxide and water, and energy is produced.
For the following quiz, review the above summary to assist you in answering the question. Select the best choice from the given answers.
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