A compound is a substance that has two or more chemical elements whose atoms are bonded together. These atoms are chemically bonded in specific ways and in detailed proportions, and the substances cannot be readily separated through simple physical means.
There are several different types of compounds, including binary, ionic, molecular, acids, cations, and anions. These types of compounds have different properties and different chemical makeups, but they are the categories that describe the potentially millions of different chemical compounds.
1. Water - Formula: H2O = Hydrogen2 + Oxygen
Two atoms of the element Hydrogen combine with one atom of Oxygen through a covalent bond to form water. Hydrogen has a slightly positive charge and oxygen has a negative charge, and therefore it forms a polar molecule. Water can be split back into hydrogen and oxygen through electrolysis.
2. Hydrogen Peroxide - Formula: H2O2 = Hydrogen2 + Oxygen2
Hydrogen peroxide is formed when two atoms of hydrogen form a bond with two atoms of oxygen that have bonded to each other. Although it has only one more oxygen atom than is present in a molecule of water (H2O), its properties are very different.
3. Salt - Formula: NaCl = Sodium + Chlorine
In salt, one atom of sodium bonds to one atom of chlorine to produce the resulting ionic compound sodium chloride. Salt is quite easily produced for commercial uses by simply evaporating seawater, although it can be mined from the ground as well. Sodium chloride can be separated into its different atoms through electrolysis.
4. Baking Soda - Formula: NaHCO3 = Sodium + Hydrogen + Carbon + Oxygen3
Sodium bicarbonate (baking soda) can be produced from the reaction of carbon dioxide with an aqueous solution of sodium hydroxide, which creates sodium carbonate; it is then combined with carbon dioxide molecules to produce sodium bicarbonate. It is found naturally in hot springs and other places on earth, but is commercially produced for industrial uses.
5. Octane - Formula: C8H18 = Carbon8 + Hydrogen18
Octane is a hydrocarbon whose actual formula is CH3(CH2)6CH3. It's a low-molecular weight compound, which means its highly volatile and flammable, making it ideally suited for the production of gasoline.
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